Question: What defines a dystopian novel?

Dystopian literature is a form of speculative fiction that began as a response to utopian literature. A dystopia is an imagined community or society that is dehumanizing and frightening. A dystopia is an antonym of a utopia, which is a perfect society.

What are the 6 elements of dystopian literature?

Six Important Elements of Dystopian FictionQuickly Establish the Reality. As stated above, dystopian fiction allows for a fairly broad field of representation. ... Lay Out the “False Utopia” ... The “Event” ... The Totalitarian. ... The Resistance. ... The Result.

What qualifies as dystopian?

Dystopia: A futuristic, imagined universe in which oppressive societal control and the illusion of a perfect society are maintained through corporate, bureaucratic, technological, moral, or totalitarian control.

What the key features of a dystopian novel are?

Common elements of dystopian fiction include societies engaged in forever wars, and characterized by extreme social and economic class divides, mass poverty, environmental devastation, anarchy, and loss of individuality.

How do you define dystopian literature?

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, a dystopia is An imaginary place or condition in which everything is as bad as possible. The easiest way to think about Dystopian Literature and dystopias is to consider that a dystopia is often the result of a societys arranging its government and laws around good ...

What are 5 traits of dystopian literature?

5 Characteristics of Dystopian FictionGovernment control.Environmental destruction.Technological control.Survival.Loss of individualism.Sep 9, 2021

Who wrote the first dystopian novel?

George Orwells 1984: 70 years after, the worlds first dystopian novel is as relevant as ever | TypeRoom.

Is Animal Farm banned?

Animal Farm (1945)//George Orwell Although this book has clearly gone on to great success (and is now studied in numerous classrooms in the U.S.), it met a great deal of criticism upon its release. It was banned entirely from the U.S.S.R.

Who wrote dystopian novels?

A modern literary genre, the dystopia, was invented by Yevgeny Zamyatin in his novel My (1924; We), which could be published only abroad. Like Aldous Huxleys Brave New World and George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-four, which are modeled on it, We describes a future socialist society that has turned out to…

Was Animal Farm banned in USA?

There are many places in the world where George Orwells satire Animal Farm has been banned. To say that the United States is not one of these places is an understatement. ... The American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) funded a cartoon version in 1955.

Why was Animal Farm banned in the United States?

Unlike other books which may be banned for several reasons, theres really only one main reason that Animal Farm has ever been banned: the critique of Communism.

Handmaids exist solely for the purpose of reproduction, bearing children for elite barren couples. They are forbidden to work, vote or read and are given a name which includes that of the man with whom they are reproducing.

Handmaids are only allowed to travel outside in pairs and, in this extract, Offred is experiencing night time as a time-out to escape surveillance. Sample question : Analyse the themes of surveillance and freedom in this extract. Remember to include in your answer relevant detailed elements from the text and if necessary justify by quoting from the text. We slept in what had once been the gymnasium.

The floor was of varnished wood, with stripes and circles painted on it, for the games that were formerly played there; the hoops for the basketball nets were still in place, though the nets were What defines a dystopian novel?. A balcony ran around the room, for the spectators, and I thought I could smell, faintly like an afterimage, the pungent scent of sweat, shot through with the sweet taint of chewing gum and perfume from the watching girls, felt-skirted as I knew from pictures, later in miniskirts, then pants, then in one earring, spiky green-streaked hair.

Dances would have been held there; the music lingered, a palimpsest of unheard sound, style upon style, an undercurrent of drums, a What defines a dystopian novel? wail, garlands made of tissue-paper flowers, cardboard devils, a revolving ball of mirrors, powdering the dancers with a snow of light.

There was old sex in the room and loneliness, and expectation, of something without a shape or name.

I remember that yearning, for something that was always about to happen and was never the same as the hands that were on us there and then, in the small of the back, or out back, in the parking lot, or in the television room with the sound turned down and only the pictures flickering over lifting flesh.

We yearned for the future. How did we learn it, that talent for insatiability? It was in the air; and it was still in the air, an afterthought, as we tried to sleep, in the army cots that had been set up in rows, with spaces between so we could not talk.

We folded our clothes neatly and laid them on the stools at the ends of the beds. The lights were turned down but not out. Aunt Sara and Aunt Elizabeth patrolled; they had electric cattle prods slung on thongs from their leather belts. No guns though, even they could not be trusted with guns. Guns were for the guards, specially picked from the Angels.

The Angels stood outside it with their backs to us. They were objects of fear to us, but of something else as well. If only they would look. If only we could talk to them. Something could be exchanged, we thought, some deal made, some tradeoff, we still had our bodies.

We learned to whisper almost without sound. In this way we exchanged names, from bed to bed: Alma. Handmaids exist solely for the purpose of reproduction, bearing children for elite barren couples.

They are forbidden to work, vote or read and are given a name which includes that of the man with whom they are reproducing. Handmaids are only allowed to travel outside in pairs and, in this extract, Offred is naming objects and remembering the past. Sample question : Analyse the creative power of language and words are in this extract. Remember to include in your answer relevant detailed elements from the text and if necessary justify by quoting from the text.

A chair, a table, a lamp. Above, on the white ceiling, a relief ornament in the shape of a wreath, and in the center of it a blank space, plastered over, like the place in a face where the eye has been taken out. There must have been a chandelier, once. A window, two white curtains. Under the window, a window seat with a What defines a dystopian novel?

cushion. When the window is partly open—it only opens partly—the air can come in and make the curtains move. I can sit in the chair, or on the window seat, hands folded, and watch this. Sunlight comes in through the window too, and falls on the floor, which is made of wood, in narrow strips, highly polished.

I can smell the polish. This is the kind of touch they like: folk art, archaic, made by women, in their spare time, from things that have no further use. A return to traditional values. I am not being wasted. On the wall above the chair, a picture, framed but with no glass: a print of flowers, blue irises, watercolor. Does each of us have the same print, the same chair, the same white curtains, I wonder?

Think of it as being in the army, said Aunt Lydia. Single, mattress medium-hard, covered with a flocked white spread. Nothing takes place in the bed but sleep; or no sleep.

I try not to think too much. Like other things now, thought must be rationed. Thinking can hurt your chances, and I intend What defines a dystopian novel? last. I know why there is no glass, in front of the watercolor picture of blue irises, and why the window opens only partly What defines a dystopian novel?

why the glass in it is shatterproof. Apart from these details, this could be a college guest room, for the less distinguished visitors; or a room in a rooming house, of former times, for ladies in reduced circumstances.

That is what we are now. The What defines a dystopian novel? have been reduced; for those of us who still have circumstances. But a chair, sunlight, flowers: these are not to be dismissed. I am alive, I live, I breathe, I put my hand out, unfolded, into the sunlight. The bell that measures time is ringing. Time here is measured by bells, as once in nunneries. As in a nunnery too, there are few mirrors. I get up out of the chair, advance my feet into the sunlight, in their red shoes, flat-heeled to save the spine and not for dancing.

The red gloves are lying on the bed. I pick them up, pull them What defines a dystopian novel? my hands, finger by finger. Everything except the wings around my face is red: the color of blood, which defines us. The skirt is ankle-length, full, gathered to a flat yoke that extends over the breasts, the sleeves are full. The white wings too are prescribed issue; they are to keep us from seeing, but also from being seen. I pick up the shopping basket, put it over my arm. The door of the room—not my room, I refuse to say my—is not locked.

I go out into the polished hallway, which has a runner down the center, dusty pink. Like a path through the forest, like a carpet for What defines a dystopian novel?, it shows me the way. The carpet bends and goes down the front staircase and I go with it, one hand on the banister, once a tree, turned in another century, rubbed to a warm gloss.

Late Victorian, the house is, a family house, built for a large rich family. A sitting room in which I never sit, but stand or kneel only. At the end of the hallway, above the front door, is a fanlight of colored glass: flowers, red and blue. There remains a mirror, on the hall wall.

If I turn my head so that the white wings framing my face direct my vision towards it, I can see it as I go down the stairs, round, convex, a pier glass, like the eye of a fish, and myself in it like a distorted shadow, a parody of something, some fairy-tale figure in a red cloak, descending towards a moment What defines a dystopian novel?

carelessness that is the same as danger. A Sister, dipped in blood. I leave the red umbrella where it is, because I know from the window that the day is sunny. Sometimes I can hear her pacing back and forth, a heavy step and then a light one, and the soft tap of her cane on the dusty-rose carpet. Handmaids exist solely for the purpose of reproduction, bearing children for elite barren couples. They are forbidden to work, vote or read and are given a name which includes that of the man with whom they are reproducing.

Handmaids are What defines a dystopian novel? allowed to travel outside in pairs and, in this extract, Offred is interacting with the Marthas who belong to another caste. Sample question : Analyse the working of the caste system and the power relationships between the characters in this extract.

Remember to include in your answer relevant detailed elements from the text and if necessary justify by quoting from the text. I walk along the hallway, past the sitting room door and the door that leads into the dining room, and open the door at the end of the hall and go through into the kitchen.

Here the smell is no longer of furniture polish. Rita is in here, standing at the kitchen table, which has a top of chipped white enamel. The dress is much like mine in shape, long and concealing, but with a bib apron over it and without the white wings and the veil. She puts on the veil to go outside, but nobody much cares who sees the face of a Martha.

Her sleeves are rolled to the elbow, showing her brown arms. Frowning, she tears out three tokens and hands them to me. Her face might be kindly if she would smile. She thinks I may be catching, like a disease or any form of bad luck. Sometimes I listen outside closed doors, a thing I never would have done in the time before. Nobody asking you, Cora said.

Anyways, what could you do, supposing? Go to the Colonies, Rita said. With the Unwomen, and starve to death and Lord knows what all? They were shelling peas; even through the almost-closed door I could hear the light clink of the hard peas falling into the metal bowl. I heard Rita, a grunt or a sigh, of protest or agreement. Better her than me, Rita said, and I opened the door. That day, Cora was more pleasant to me than usual, Rita more surly. We would exchange remedies and try to outdo each other in the recital of our What defines a dystopian novel?

miseries; gently we would complain, our voices soft and minor key and mournful as pigeons in the eaves troughs. What defines a dystopian novel? it would be, which it is. How I used to despise such talk. Now I long for it. At least it was talk. The Marthas know things, they talk among themselves, passing the unofficial news from house to house. Like me, they listen at doors, no doubt, and see things even with their eyes averted. Or, Stabbed her with a knitting needle, right in the belly.

Jealousy, it must have been, eating her up. Or, tantalizingly, It was toilet cleaner she used. Or I would help Rita make the bread, sinking my hands into that soft resistant warmth which is so much like flesh. I hunger to touch something, other than cloth or wood.

I hunger to commit the act of touch. But even if I were to ask, even if I were to violate decorum to that extent, Rita would not allow it. She would be too afraid. The Marthas are not supposed to fraternize with us.

What defines a dystopian novel?

Fraternize means to behave like a brother. He said there was no corresponding word that meant to behave like a sister. Sororize, it would have to be, he said. He liked knowing about such details. The derivations of words, curious usages. I used to tease him about being pedantic. I place them in the zippered pocket in my sleeve, where I keep my pass. And a chicken, tell them, not a hen.

What defines a dystopian novel?

Why tempt her to friendship? Handmaids exist solely for the purpose of reproduction, bearing children for elite barren couples. They are forbidden to work, vote or read and are given a name which includes that of the man with whom they are reproducing. Sample question : Analyse the double-sided symbolism of What defines a dystopian novel?

garden in this extract. Remember to include in your answer relevant detailed elements from the text and if necessary justify by quoting from the text. I go out by What defines a dystopian novel? back door, into the garden, which is large and tidy: a lawn in the middle, a willow, weeping catkins; around the edges, the flower borders, in which the daffodils are now fading and the tulips are opening their cups, What defines a dystopian novel?

out color. The tulips are red, a darker crimson towards the stem, as if they have been cut and are beginning to heal there. I once had a garden. I can remember the smell of the turned earth, the plump shapes of bulbs held in the hands, fullness, the dry rustle of seeds through the fingers.

Extracts from The Handmaid’s Tale

Time could pass more swiftly that way. What defines a dystopian novel? a distance it looks like peace. Or knitting scarves, for the Angels at the front lines. Fir trees march across the ends of her scarves, or eagles, or stiff humanoid figures, boy and girl, boy and girl. Handmaids exist solely for the purpose of reproduction, bearing children for What defines a dystopian novel?

barren couples. They are forbidden to work, vote or read. Handmaids are only allowed to travel outside in pairs and, in this extract, Ofglen and Offred are on a shopping trip. Sample question : Explore the theme of representation as a mirror to the self in this extract. Remember to include in your answer relevant detailed analysis and justify by quoting from the text. Extract : A group of people is coming towards us. The skirts reach just below the knee and the legs come out from beneath them, nearly naked in their thin stockings, blatant, the high-heeled shoes with their straps attached to the feet like delicate instruments of torture.

The women teeter on their spiked feet as if on stilts, but off balance; their backs arch at the waist, thrusting the buttocks out. Their heads are uncovered and their hair too is exposed, in all its darkness and sexuality. They wear lipstick, red, outlining the damp cavities of their mouths, like scrawls on a washroom wall, of the time before. Ofglen stops beside me and I know that she too cannot take her eyes off these women.

We are fascinated, but also repelled. It has taken so little time to change our minds, about things like this. Then I think: I used to dress like that.

Westernized, they used to call it. The Japanese tourists come towards us, twittering, and we turn our heads away too late: our faces have been seen. The tourists bunch behind him; one of them raises a camera. What they must see is the white wings only, a scrap of face, my chin and part of my mouth. I know better than to look the interpreter in the face.

I also know better than to What defines a dystopian novel? Yes. What defines a dystopian novel? is invisibility, said Aunt Lydia. To be seen — What defines a dystopian novel? be seen — is to be — her voice trembled — penetrated. What you must be, girls, is impenetrable. Beside me, Ofglen is also silent. The interpreter turns back to the group, chatters at them in staccato.

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