Question: Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg?

Der sogenannte Barbarossafreibrief vom 7. Mai 1189 gilt als einer der bedeutendsten Schätze des Staatsarchivs Hamburg. Konkret wird in diesem Privileg Hamburg die Zollfreiheit auf der Elbe unterhalb Hamburgs und Zollfreiheit in der Grafschaft Holstein gewährt.

Wann war der 3 Kreuzzug?

1189 – 1192 Third Crusade/Periods

Welche Ursachen hatte der 3 Kreuzzug?

Ursachen des Dritten Kreuzzuges Nach dem gescheiterten Zweiten Kreuzzug gerieten die Kreuzfahrerstaaten immer stärker in Bedrängnis. Im Jahre 1154 eroberte Nur ad-Din, Emir von Mossul aus der Dynastie der Zengiden, das Emirat Damaskus, wohin er seinen Hauptsitz verlagerte.

Since theit was an important trading center in Europe. The convenient location of the and its independence as a city and state for centuries strengthened this position.

The city was member in the medieval and a of the. From 1815 until 1866 Hamburg was an independent and Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg? of thethen the 1866—71the 1871—1918 and during the period of the 1918—33.

In Hamburg was a city-state and a from 1934 until 1945. After the Hamburg was in the and became a state in Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg? in the Since 1949. Please by the claims made and adding. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. July 2017 According tothe settlement's first name was. The angle might refer to a spit of land or to the curvature of a river.

The language spoken might not have been Old High German, as was spoken there later. Other theories hold that the castle was named for the word of a surrounding vast forest, hammen. Hamm as a place name occurs a number of times in Germany, but its meaning is equally uncertain.

First settlers in the area would have been a hunting and gathering society in the late and. The culture of hunters is named. Later Charlemagne's son built this castle on the old trading path from in the North to and in 810. On 25 December 831 was consecrated as the archbishop for the Hammaburg. Ansgar became later known as the Apostle of the North. In 845 came up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around 500 inhabitants.

Two years later, Hamburg was united with as the. In 880 Hamburg was destroyed again this time by Slavic and Danish soldiers. He died in 965 and was buried in the. In 983, the town was destroyed by King of the.

There are four famous castles linked to Hamburg in the 11th century, the bishopric castle also known as was built around 1037 by Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg?. The Wiedenburg was built 1043 by Adalbert. The Alsterburg, that never really existed and the built in 1023. After further raids by the Obodrites in 1066 the bishop permanently moved to Bremen. In 1188 Hamburg adopted the Lübsches Rechta code of rights superseded in some areas in 1900 by the civil code of Germanyalthough it is disputed if the law in Hamburg originated from an own law.

The charter was given orally for Hamburg's backing of Frederick'sand in 1265 an in all probability forged letter was presented to or by the Rath of Hamburg. In 1190 the bishop's old city and the count's new city created a noble council Rath. Hamburg was controlled by Denmark. The Danish governor united the Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg? and the old parts of Hamburg under one law, town hall and court. A series of Danish defeats culminating in the on 22 July 1227 cemented the loss of Denmark's northern German territories and liberated Hamburg also.

From 1230 a new fortification was built. Its layout and names can be found in 2008, e. In 1264 the enacted a law to protect the of the city. Hard punishments should be given if a swan was beaten to death, insulted, shot or eaten. A popular belief omen is that Hamburg will be free and hanseatic as long as swans are living on the river.

On 5 August 1284 a great fire destroyed all but one residential house in Hamburg. The first description of civil, criminal and procedural law for a city in Germany in German language, the Ordeelbook Ordeel: sentence was written by the solicitor of the senate Jordan von Boitzenburg in 1270.

In 1350 Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg? of the deadliest pandemics in human history, struck in Hamburg killing more than 6,000, half of the city's population. The first contract stated that both cities would defend their freedom and their privileges together. The second contract stated that the road between the two cities will be secured against bandits and that deported émigrés would not find shelter in the other city.

In 1264 the east—west route for commerce was in Hamburg. It was the third cobbled road in northern Europe and called Steinstraße, which is still the name of a street in Hamburg. On 8 November 1266 a contract between and Hamburg's traders allowed them to establish a hanse in London. This was the first time in history the word hanse was mentioned for the trading guild. In May 1368 a fleet of 37 ships and 2,000 armed men, including two and 200 men from Hamburg, conquered and razed it to the ground.

Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg?

Hamburg's most important export article was beer. In 1377 a new currency, the Mark, was Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg? by the Wendischer Münzverein currency association.

The cities Hamburg, Lübeck, Luneburg, Wismar and Rostock formed this association. Three tonnes of beer cost one mark. At this time Hamburg's population was 14,000. Hamburg was the third—largest city in the Hanseatic League after Lübeck and Cologne.

On 21 October 1401 the pirate was executed in Hamburg, although pirates were often thrown overboard to drown or decapitated shortly after their capture. In 1433 defeated the pirates and conquered.

The first was established on 10 August 1410. A civil commotion caused a compromise German: Rezeß, literally meaning: withdrawal. The citizen Hein Brandt has met the duke ofwho owed Brandt money.

Brandt Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg? the duke to task and insulted him. The duke complained to the senate. The senate cited Brandt and he confessed and was arrested. This caused an uproar and citizens formed a council. At this time the senate was formed by richest citizens, not elected and the senate did not need to give account for its decisions.

Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg?

The situation in Hamburg was unstable because in 1408 members of the senate of Lübeck had found asylum in Hamburg, after they Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg? expelled by the citizens of Lübeck. The formed council of the sixty German: der Sechzigerrat demanded to free Brandt and to enter into negotiations. The mayor Kersten Miles and the senate freed Brandt and agreed after four days of negotiations to a compromise of 20 points. No citizen, poor or rich, is to be arrested without a hearing at the senate or a court.

The senate is not allowed to begin a war without a hearing of the citizens. The senate cannot grant safe conduct for a person who owes a citizen of Hamburg. In case of disputes between the senate and the citizens, these disputes need to be corrected immediately and are not to be delayed by jurists.

Disloyal public servants need to be discharged. Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg? is the considered as the first constitution of Hamburg. On 15 May 1529 the city embraced. The senate of Hamburg had asked to send his friend and colleague to create a new.

Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg?

Bugenhagen's work created a for Hamburg. The service was held in Low German and the parishes elected their own pastors. There was no in Hamburg mostly because ofthe new pastor ofwho stated the statues of false gods and lying pictures needed to be removed from the churches instantly.

He took them down and stored them, so that by and others survived, and are now in the city's museums. At the same time on 24 February, the long compromise German: Langer Rezeß reorganized the political system. The senate, now 24 aldermen, held the executive and judicial authority. But without the council of the citizens, no Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg? could be enacted.

The councils were elected by the 4 parishes. The parishes were now also administrative divisions of the city. In May 1531 the closedit only reopened as Lutheran in 1540. Not until 1785 did the senate acknowledge a small community. In 1558 the Hamburg stock market was founded.

In 1567 Hamburg asked a group of English traders to settle in the city. This was in conflict with the rules of the Hanseatic League, but Hamburg used the taxes to downsize the public debt. The cause of this debt was Hamburg's contribution to the 1546—1552 between the Lutheran dukes and cities and the emperor.

Was geschah in diesem Haus?

Some of these street names still date from the grid system of roads he introduced. In the late 1580s, the first arrived—fleeing from —and built a. In 1610, official lists of the senate counted about 100 Jewish families. The faculties attested to the senate that the Jews should be tolerated in the town as strangers. The safety in person were granted; Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg?, several assaults, often triggered by Christian homilies, against individual Jews took place.

The community was not to be allowed to practise its religion publicly, but small private praying rooms were overlooked. Not until 1660 could the first small synagogue be built. The latter Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg? burned down by a trespassing Swedish army Altona was not part of Hamburg at the time ; Sweden's adversaries retaliated by burning down in.

In 1762 the city was briefly occupied by Danish forces who were trying to raise money to fight a coming war with Russia. Briefly annexed by 1810—14Hamburg was the capital of thewith as the new mayor. Hamburg suffered severely during the and Napoleon's last campaign in Germany but managed to raise two forces to fight against him, the and.

The city was besieged for over a year by Allied forces mostly Russian, Swedish and German. Russian forces under finally freed the city in 1814. In addition to stimulating German nationalism, the war had a major impact in mobilizing a civic spirit in numerous volunteer activities.

Many volunteer militias and civic associations were formed, and collaborated with churches, and the press to support local and state armies, patriotic wartime mobilization, humanitarian relief and postwar commemorative practices and rituals.

City state of Hamburg in 1890 Hamburg was a member of the 39-state from 1814 to 1866 and, as the other member-states, enjoyed full sovereignty. After periodic Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg? unrest, particularly inthe self-ruling city-state adopted a democratic constitution in 1860 that provided for the election of the Senate, the governing body of the city-state, by adult taxpaying males.

Other innovations were the separation of powers, the separation of Church and State, freedom of the press, of assembly and association.

Bombing of Hamburg in World War II

Hamburg became a member of the 1866—71the 1871—1918while in 1888 it was one of the last two states to along with Bremen and was to maintain its self-ruling status during the Weimar Republic 1919—33. During the first half of the 19th century a patron goddess with Hamburg's Latin name Hammonia emerged, mostly in romantic and poetic references, and although she has no mythology to call her own, became the symbol of the city's spirit during this time.

Hamburg's central promenade Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg? River Alster in 1900. This fire started on the night of 4 May 1842 and was extinguished on 8 May. It destroyed three churches, the town hall, and countless other buildings.

It killed 51 people, and left an estimated 20,000 homeless. Reconstruction took more than 40 years. As part of the reconstruction, the first large modern sanitation system in Europe was built in Hamburg. Hamburg Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg? its fastest growth during the second half of the 19th century, when its population more than quadrupled to 800,000 as the growth of the city's Atlantic trade helped make it Europe's third-largest port. Construction of lead to the disappearance of several of the smaller ofsuch as the.

A major outbreak of in 1892 was very badly handled by the city government, which still retained an unusual degree of independence for a German city at the time. About 8,600 died in the largest German of the late 19th century, and the last major cholera epidemic in an important city in the Western world.

The Hamburg water supply from the Elbe did not meet modern standards, and the authorities long continued to deny there was an epidemic, or implement the new understanding of the. The Imperial government used the scandal to greatly reduce the powers of the city authorities. Hamburg became Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg? cosmopolitan metropolis based on worldwide trade.

Hamburg was the port for most Germans and Eastern Europeans to leave for the and became home to trading communities from all over the world like a small in Altona, Hamburg. In 1903, the world's first organised club for social and family Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg?, Freilichtpark Free-Light Park was opened in Hamburg.

It was located on a lake formed by the Alster River in the southern part of the city, adjoining a bathing beach. After Germany lost her and Hamburg lost many of its trade routes.

They agreed to hold a free, equal and secret-ballot election on March 16, 1919. There were 6 elections in total from 1919 to 1933. This paves the way for the subsequent Nazi ruling. The camp operated from 1938 to 1945 in the neighbourhood of Hamburg. After the in 1933, administrative powers were significantly altered. The Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg? über den Neuaufbau des Reiches Law concerning the reconstruction of the Reich 30 January 1934.

The political institutions of the Länder were practically abolished altogether, passing all powers to the central government.

The German constituent states were replaced in 1935 by regional districts German: led by officials who obeyed the central government's orders. On 16 May 1933 1900—1969 was appointed as imperial governor or imperial lieutenant in Hamburg.

The Hamburg Senate had resigned in March 1933 and the elected as mayor. In 1938 the city boundaries were extended with the to incorporate, Wilhelmsburg and. On 1 April 1938 Constitution of Hamburg was suppressed through an Imperial Law German: Reichsgesetzthe Hamburg Senate was dissolved and Was geschah 1189 in Hamburg?

position of First Mayor of Hamburg abolished. Hamburg was named Hansestadt Hamburg. During Hamburg suffered a series of which killed 42,000 German civilians. British bombers dropped 23,000 tons of bombs, the Americans dropped 16,000 tons. As the bombings continued more and more people moved out. By May 1945 half a million people 35% had fled. Through this, and the new zoning guidelines of the 1960s, the inner city lost much of its architectural past. From 1938 until 1945 a was established in the quarter of Hamburg, thesome of the buildings have been preserved and as of 2008 serve as a memorial.

From 1939 until 1945 more than 500,000 men, women and children — including — were forced to work at more than 900 companies, living in more than 1,200 camps all over Hamburg.

Some of these camps held only 7 inmates, others were known for more than 1,500 inmates. After the end of the Second World War until the end of the Hamburg was a from 1945 to 1949. Specially and identified with the city and worked through theasking prospective Hamburg inhabitants to resume office in the administration. The — only 50 kilometres 30 mi east of Hamburg — separated the city from most of its hinterland and further reduced Hamburg's global trade.

On 16 February 1962 a caused the Elbe to rise to an all-time high, inundating one fifth of Hamburg and killing more than 300 people. A group of radical that included students who eventually came to be key operatives in theaccording to and intelligence agencies, was called the.

On 7 and 8 July 2017, the took place in Hamburg, accompanied by protests and riots. The French Navy in the Seven Years War. Hays, Epidemics and pandemics: their impacts on human history, pp. The Merchant Republics: Amsterdam, Antwerp, and Hamburg, 1648-1790 Cambridge University Press, 2014 356 pp. Kaufleute zwischen Hamburg und Portugal im 17.

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